Difference between Category 5, 5e, 6, 6a and 7 Cable Standards

06/17/2021 7:29

Category 5 Cable Category 5 (CAT5) cable is a multi-pair (usually 4 pair) high performance cable that consists of twisted pair conductors, used mainly for data transmission. Basic CAT5 cable was designed for characteristics of up to 100 MHz. CAT5 cable is typically used for Ethernet networks running at 10 or 100 Mbps.  Category 5e Cable Category 5e (CAT5e) cable, also known as Enhanced Category 5, is designed to support full-duplex Fast Ethernet operation and Gigabit Ethernet. The main differences between CAT5 and CAT5e can be found in the specifications. The performance requirements have been raised slightly in the new standard (see comparison chart below). CAT5e has stricter specifications for Power Sum Equal-Level Far-End Crosstalk (PS-ELFEXT), Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT), Attenuation, and Return Loss (RL) than those for CAT5. Like CAT5, CAT5e is a 100-MHz standard, but it has the capacity to handle bandwidth superior to that of CAT5. CAT5 cable is typically used for Ethernet networks running at 100 Mbps or 1 Gbps.  Use Cablek’s GigaBase 350 CAT5e, 350-MHz Solid High-Performance, ETL Verified Bulk Cable.Easy way to tell the difference between a Cat5e and Cat6 Patch Cable

cat5e vs cat6 patch cable, difference between cat5e and cat6 patch cable

       Cat6                          Cat5e      

Category 6 Cable Category 6 (CAT6) cable provides higher performance than CAT5e and features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise. The quality of the data transmission depends upon the performance of the components of the channel. To transmit according to CAT6 specifications, jacks, patch cables, patch panels, cross-connects, and cabling must all meet CAT6 standards. The CAT6 components are tested individually, and they are also tested together for performance. In addition, the standard calls for generic system performance so that CAT6 components from any vendor can be used in the channel. All CAT6 components must be backward compatible with CAT5e, CAT5, and CAT3. If different category components are used with CAT6 components, then the channel will achieve the transmission performance of the lower category. For instance, if CAT6 cable is used with CAT5e jacks, the channel will perform at a CAT5e level. Use Cablek’s Category 6+ DATAGAIN Solid High-Performance, ETL Verified Bulk Cable.Augmented Category 6 (CAT6a) Cable 
CAT6a is a 10-Gigabit Ethernet over copper proposal to the CAT6 standard. The IEEE published a draft standard (Std 802.3an) in October 2004.  The draft calls for 10-Gigabit data transmission over a 4-pair twisted-pair copper cable for a distance of 100 meters on Class F or Class E-augmented copper cabling. The draft extends CAT6 electrical specifications from 250 MHz to 500 MHz. It also proposes a new measurement: Power-Sum Alien Crosstalk to 500 MHz. Alien Crosstalk is a coupled signal in a disturbed pair arising from a signal in a neighboring cable.  The TIA is working to complete a new specification that will define enhanced performance standards for unshielded twisted pair cable systems. Draft specification ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2-10 specifies cable systems, called “Augmented Category 6” or more frequently as “Category 6a”, that operate at frequencies up to 500 MHz and will provide up to 10 Gbit/s bandwidth. The new specification has limits on alien crosstalk in cabling systems. Augmented Category 6 specifies cable operating at minimum frequency of 500 MHz, for both shielded and unshielded. It can support future 10 Gb/s applications up to the maximum distance of 100 meters on a 4-connector channel.
Within the networking market place the move towards the ratification of Category 6 Augmented cabling is continuing, but with no firm standards set, it is a time to wait and see. Although a number of companies have announced Cat6A products, it is clear that these are purely based on proprietary systems, with a great deal of hope thrown in. The basic drive behind Cat6A is the desire to support 10Gbps to the desk over the standard 100m. Although the current Cat6 standard will support it up to 55m, this is not suitable for most organisations.  Category 7/Class F

 Category 7/Class F (ISO/IEC 11801:2002) specifies a frequency range of 1–600 MHz over 100 meters of fully shielded twisted-pair cabling. It encompasses four individually shielded pairs inside an overall shield, called Shielded/Foiled Twisted Pair (S/FTP) or Foiled/ Foiled Twisted Pair (F/FTP). There is a pending class Fa, based on the use of S/FTP cable to 1000 MHz. It can support 10GBASE-T transmissions. With both types of cable, each twisted pair is enclosed in foil. In S/FTP cable, all four pairs are encased in an overall metal braid. In F/FTP, the four pairs are encased in foil. Category 7/Class F cable can be terminated with two interface designs as specified in IEC 6063-7-7 and IEC 61076-3-104. One is an RJ-45 compatible GG-45 connector. The other is the more common TERA connector, which was launched in 1999. Category 7/Class F is backwards compatible with traditional CAT6 and CAT5 cable, but it has far more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise. The fully shielded cable virtually eliminates crosstalk between the pairs. In addition, the cable is noise resistant, which makes the Category 7/Class F systems ideal for high EMI areas, such as industrial and medical imaging facilities.  Category 7/Class F cable can also increase security by preventing the emission of data signals from the cable to nearby areas. 

http://www.fiberopticshare.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/cat6-vs-cat7-vs-cat8.png
CategoryStandard BandwidthMax Data RateShielding
Cat5e100MHz (up to 350)1000MbpsUTP or STP
Cat6250MHz (up to 550)1000MbpsUTP or STP
Cat6A500MHz (up to 550)10GbpsUTP or STP
Cat7600MHz10GbpsShielded only
Cat82000MHz25Gbps or 40GbpsShielded only
Category 5, 5e, 6 & 7 Cable Comparison
 CAT5CAT5eCAT6   CAT6a  CAT7 (Proposed)
Frequency100 MHz100 MHz250 MHz500 MHz600 MHz
Attenuation (min. at 100 MHz)22 dB22 dB19.8 dB20.8 dB
Characteristic Impedance100 ohms = 15%100 ohms = 15%100 ohms = 15%100 ohms = 15%
NEXT (min. at 100 MHz)32.3 dB35.3 dB44.3 dB27.9 dB62.1 dB
PS-NEXT (min. at 100 MHz)NA32.3 dB42.3 dB59.1 dB
EL-FEXT (min. at 100 MHz)NA23.8 dB27.8 dB9.3 dB(not yet specified)
PS-ELFEXT (min. at 100 MHz)NA20.8 dB24.8 dB(not yet specified)
PS-ANEXT (min. at 500 MHz)49.5 dB
PS-AELFEXT (min. at 500 MHz)16 dB20.1 dB20.1 dB23.0 dB14.1 dB
Return Loss (min. at 100 MHz)16 dB20.1 dB20.1 dB8.0 dB14.1 dB
Delay Skew (max. per 100m)NA45 ns45 ns20 ns
Networks Supported100BASE-T1000BASE-T1000BASE-TX10GBASE(not yet specified)

Categories:Uncategorized

Cat 6 Outdoor Cable Kenya 305 Meters Cable Ethernet 23AWG

06/17/2021 7:26

Cat 6e Outdoor SFTP cable, 305 Meters Cable Ethernet 23AWG  Solid Bulk Direct Burial and UV Shielded 

The Ethernet Cat 6 Outdoor Cable, Offers a convenient solution for outdoor cabling works. The cable offers Direct Burial or without the use of a conduit. It is suitable for Applications:

  • Gigabit Ethernet
  • 100 Mbps TPDDI
  • 155 Mbps ATM
  • IEEE 802.3
Cat 6 Outdoor Cables Kenya

Direct Burial CAT6 is made with a polyethylene (PE) jacket and gel-infused to protect the cable from water, and extreme temperatures.

The cable is triple shielded, UV Earth and Weather Proof. Four color-striped pairs make it easy to install and reduces alien crosstalk.

This Cat 6 Outdoor Cable can be measured and cut to exact distances, then terminated to a RJ 45 connectors, jack, or patch panel. The Cat 6 LAN Outdoor Ethernet Cable is certified and fluke tested for gigabit Ethernet and 350 MHz

Product Specifications and Features

  • U/V Resistant and Water Proof HDPE Insulated LDPE JacketCat 6 Outdoor Cables Kenya
  • Thick Polyethylene (PE) Protective Jacket for Indoor/Outdoor use
  • Color: Black
  • Cat6 Certified Transfer Rate: 10/100/1000 mbps (1000Base-T Gigabit).
  • 1000-foot of uncapped, unshielded twisted pair Ethernet cable
  • Copper Clad Aluminum/Copper Clad Alloy (CCA) construction
  • Four pairs
  • UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair
  • Conductor 23AWG / 0.57mm
  • Lead-free
  • Supplied in 1000ft Wooden Spool

Manufacturer Specifications:

  • Packaging: Wooden Spool in brown box packaging
  • Insulation: HDPE 1.01±0.03mm
  • Jacket: Black UV/Waterproof LDPE 5.8±0.03mm

Direct Burial CAT6 is made with a polyethylene (PE) jacket and gel-infused to protect the cable from water, and extreme temperatures.

The cable is triple shielded, UV Earth and Weather Proof. Four color-striped pairs make it easy to install and reduces alien cross-talk

wtbp-table-press id=1]

CAT6 Cables dealer in Kenya. 

CAT6 twisted pair Ethernet  cabling. Used in home and business  structured cabling and networks.They have primarily been used as the backbone of networks.  Shop online shopping at tronik Kenya. best online shop in Kenya.

EaseNet Cat6- UTP 24AW Tough LAN Cable 305M

Buy Easenet CAT 6 UTP Ethernet Cable305M at the best price in Nairobi, Kenya from  Tronik, Dealers in good quality UTP  Ethernet cables in kenya.

EaseNet Cat6– UTP 24AW Tough LAN Cable 305M. Quality Cat 6, 5e Dlink, TP-link, Siemon, Aico Ethernet LAN CABLES Brands available.

305M EaseNet outdoor/Indoor and Outdoor Cat 6 Semi-Copper Ethernet Cable for Voice Cabling and structured cabling.

AD-Link CAT6 Ethernet Cable – 305M

Siemon Cat 6A UTP Pure Copper Ethernet Cable 305M

Easenet 500 M Indoor Cat 6 Full Copper Ethernet Cable

500 M EaseNet Indoor Cat 6 Full Copper Ethernet Cable

Buy U.T.P cable category 6e (cat 6e) online from  Tronik Shop the leading LAN Cables shop in Nairobi.

Dlink cat 6 24 AWG UTP cable 305 Metres / Roll  full copper available at Tronik, Nairobi Kenya D-link category 6 unshielded twisted pair cable

Buy CAT6 Cables at the best prices.Specifications, Price and Reviews.Buy now online from tronik the best dealers in networking cables.

The Cat6 Cable is suitable  with wall sockets and patch panels rather than for crimping
Suitable for indoor use. Voice, Data, Video Cabling, ISDN etc.

Other Full copper Ethernet Cables Kenya. Giganet Cat 6 UTP cable price in Kenya, Siemon Cat 6 cable price in Kenya , Cat 6 cable price in Kenya


Categories:Uncategorized

UTP Category 6 UV Outdoor Cable

06/17/2021 7:23

UTP Category 6 UV Outdoor Cable is a high-quality twisted-pair cable designed for professional data transmission systems installed outdoors. Its polyethylene (PE) sheath is resistant to UV radiation, sunlight and moisture. The cable can be installed into ducts, trays or buried in tubing underground. The UV CAT6 cable has numerous applications, although Outdoor Wireless and IP surveillance tend to be the most popular.

The cables are unshielded, relying on the twisted pair design for noise rejection. Category 5 has been superseded by the UTP Category 6 cable specification structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet, and is also used to carry many other signals such as basic voice services, token ring, and ATM.

Configuration 

100m Easypull Cable Box 
305m Easypull Cable Box
500m Cable Drum


Categories:Uncategorized

Best Prices for Ubiquiti Unifi Access Points Sale in Nairobi Kenya

05/12/2021 12:08
UniFi is Ubiquiti’s line of networking equipment with different models of wireless access points, routers, switches, security cameras, controller appliances, VoIP phones, and access control products. UniFi equipment exists between enterprise and cheap home networking gear. It’s a nice middle ground, offering more flexibility and features than most consumer-grade brands, but lacking the expense and complexity of enterprise. UniFi networks come in all shapes in sizes: from a small apartment, up to thousands of devices in a stadium, and a lot of networks in between. You choose the pieces that you need, and you are not required to have the full UniFi stack. You can start with one device and build it out over time. If you only need Wi-Fi, their access points can be uplinked to any switch, and served packets from any router. If you need a managed switch or security gateway, Ubiquiti makes those too. There are benefits to having all the pieces, but it’s not necessary.

UniFi OS Software and Applications

Software-Defined Networking

Software-defined networking can be a meaningless word, but the basic definition is that the administration is done in software, separate from the actual networking equipment. With UniFi, you use the UniFi network controller. This is free software that can run on Windows, macOS or Linux. You can run the software on any PC you have on a physical server, or in a VM or Docker container. It also runs inside the UniFi Dream Machines and UniFi Cloud Keys. The controller software is used for configuring and monitoring your UniFi network. If you need to make changes to your settings, add additional devices, or upgrade firmware, you’ll do all of that through the UniFi controller. A few things can be done on the command line via SSH, but in general, UniFi devices are meant to be managed through the controller. The primary way of accessing the software is in a web browser. Ubiquiti also make mobile applications for Android and iOS which have some of the functions found on the web interface. Here are some of the bestselling UniFi wireless access points:
  • AC-Lite: The do-everything workhorse. Unless you are trying to push gigabit speeds or have some really heavy wireless needs in mind, this is a good default option.
  • UniFi 6 Lite: The smallest, cheapest Wi-Fi 6 AP. The new baseline.
  • AC-LR: LR stands for long range. Features a better antenna that can reach further distances than the AC-Lite. It’s a good option if you are trying to cover the far corners of a house. The LR is only a small step up in price from the lite, and is another good default option.
  • UniFi 6 LR: The long range version of the UniFi 6 Lite. Steps up to 4×4 5 GHz radio, allowing for longer range and higher speeds than the 6 Lite.
  • AC-Mesh: If you need longer-range mesh or outdoor coverage, this is the one to get.
  • AC-BeaconHD: If Ethernet isn’t an option, this is the best indoor mesh AP they offer.
  • AC-nanoHD: Newer than the Pro, this is the cheapest 802.11ac Wave 2 access point they make. If you have modern devices that support multiple radio chains on 5 GHz, you can get some fast throughput. 2.4 GHz performance isn’t as strong as the Pro, however.
  • AC-FlexHD: Same radios and capabilities as the nanoHD in a different form factor.
  • AC-HD: For really high density and/or maximum throughput. Only buy this if you have the need, or the cash to burn. The HD has the best 2.4 and 5 GHz performance I’d recommend for home use. The only step up from the HD is the UWB-XG, which is intended more for places like an auditorium or sports venues (hundreds or thousands of devices in a small area).
And unless you have a specific need for them, you can also ignore most of the specialty models.
  • UAP-AC-EDU adds a built in loudspeaker and is EoL.
  • UAP-AC-SHD adds an extra radio dedicated to security tasks and RF monitoring, meant for dense and secure environments like a bank, or a hospital.
  • The XG series (UAP-XG and UWB-XG) are overkill for 99.99% of home networks – more on those later.
  • IW stands for In-Wall. In-Wall APs can be used if mounting a traditional access point isn’t an option. Ethernet should still be run to these, but they also have the benefit of providing two or four Ethernet ports for other downstream devices, thanks to a small built-in switch.
  • M stands for mesh. Mesh APs are what you want if you are mounting outdoors. The mesh models (and all 2nd generation or newer UniFi APs) allow you to extend a network without requiring Ethernet cabling, using a power adapter and wireless backhaul. Wireless backhaul will not perform as well as wired, but they can be the best option for certain situations.
Essentially they act as a wireless bridge when you are connected to it. One radio talks to your device, while the other relays that to the next closest AP. This is why wireless backhaul will generally have higher latency and lower speeds than using Ethernet.

802.11AC WAVE 1 VS. WAVE 2

The Lite, LR and Pro models are all 802.11ac Wave 1. The HD models are all 802.11ac Wave 2. Wave 2 brings a few majors changes which allow for higher performance. Wave 1 AP’s can only use SU-MIMO (Single-User, Multiple Input, Multiple Output) to communicate with only one client at a time. Wave 2 APs can use MU-MIMO (Multi-User, Multiple Input, Multiple Output) to communicate with multiple clients at the same time — significantly increasing multi-user throughput. MU-MIMO also increases wireless performance and/or serves more clients at the same performance level. At any single time, a 4×4 Wave 2 AP can communicate with the following:
  • Four 1×1 clients
  • Two 2×2 clients
  • One 2×2 client and two 1×1 clients
  • One 3×3 client and one 1×1 client
Another benefit of Wave 2 is that up to four spatial streams are available, and more channels can be bonded together. Both of those feature’s help achieve higher speeds. Deciding if the added costs and abilities are worth it is up to you. ANTENNA DIFFERENCES One more thing to keep in mind — while a lot of models have equivalent radio performance, there are differences in their antennas, and how those antennas perform. Generally speaking, the LR, mesh and HD models have higher-gain, and more sensitive antennas. Equivalent radios with better antennas lead to better performance. If you want maximum performance in one area, you can have one Pro or HD covering that, and use AC-Lite’s or mesh APs to extend the network into less used areas. Alternatively, if you want to expand coverage in the future, you do not need to match the AP’s you currently have. You can add any of them at anytime, anywhere you need them.
Categories:Uncategorized

What is a Cat6 Cable?

05/10/2021 11:09

Category 6 cable, also commonly known as network, LAN or Ethernet data cable, is a 4 twisted pair sheathed copper wire cable which can support data transfer rates of up to 1 gigabits (1,000 megabits). This higher bandwidth allows for quick transferral of large files in an office network.

It is compatible with fast Ethernet 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX and Gigabit networks, and is backwards compatible with previous iterations, such as Cat5/5E and Cat3.

Either end usually has an eight-position eight connector (8P8C) RJ45 jack which is used to connect two devices together with the Cat6 cable. It’s important to use jacks that meet Cat6 rating in order to get the full performance it delivers.

As with all Ethernet cable, it can be identified by the labelling on the outer sheath.

What are Cat6 Cables Used for?

In most cases, Cat6 cable is used for connecting a computer to another device like a hub, router or switch in order to allow the sharing of files across a network or for accessing the Internet.

It can also be used for connecting computers to other devices together such as printers or scanners, or for incoming and outgoing LAN connections on patch panels.

Cat6 Cable

Cat6 Types, Frequency and Distance Usage

There are two types of category 6 cable:

Cat6 TypeFrequencyMaximum Distance Usage
Standard Cat6 Cable250MHz55m unshielded for 10GBASE-T
Cat6a Ethernet Cable (also known as Augmented Cat6)500MHz100m on 10GBASE-T

What is the Difference Between Shielded Twisted Pair and Unshielded Twisted Pair?

Depending on where you are installing your Cat6 cable, in a factory instead of an office building, you may have large amounts of electromagnetic interference (EMI). EMI can be caused by certain types of lighting, air conditioning, printers, motors and generators.

Cat6 cable uses twisted pair cable as standard to minimise the amount of crosstalk to reduce the noise created by electrical interference. Two types of twisted pair cable are available – shielded twisted pair (STP) and unshielded twisted pair (UTP).

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cat6 Cable

Standard twisted pair cable might not be enough for some environments, and shielded twisted pair (STP) Cat6 cable needs to be used in order to combat this.

This shielding usually comes in the form of a foil shield wrapped around the twisted pairs, which is in turn wrapped by a PVC or low smoke zero halogen (LSZH) sheath.

Largely, STP is more expensive and is stiffer, making it harder to install. Any jacks and couplers used also need to be shielded, further increasing the cost.

STP Cable

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable

Conversely, unshielded twisted pair cable (UTP) Cat6 cable is basically your standard cable, without this foil shielding. It does reduce some EMI on its own but doesn’t effectively block interference as well as STP.

UTP Cable

What is the Difference Between Cat6 and Cat5/5e Cable?

Essentially it comes down to quality, speed and price.

A network will always run at the speed of the slowest device or component, so mixing the two will cause the entire network to run at the speed of the one with the lowest specification.

Cat5 is obsolete and has been replaced by Cat5e. Good quality Cat5e (the “e” stands for enhanced) cable can run at near, or at, gigabit speeds, whilst Cat6 is specifically certified for 1-gigabit operation, therefore offering increased speed over Cat5. Cat6 can perform up to 250MHz whilst Cat5e can only operate up to 100MHz. Cat5e is more economical, has almost comparable speeds and comes in many colours to match environments they’re placed into.

If you are looking to buy Cat6 cable, it is better in comparison, but you will pay more for it, and the increases it delivers are marginal in perception. It’s all about making the right choice for the right environment.

What is a Cat6 Cable Tester?

Network Cable Tester

Cat6 cable testers are an essential tool for quickly testing and troubleshooting the integrity of Ethernet cables.

They can test multiple cable types, verifying if cables are correctly or incorrectly connected. They generally vary depending on price, performance and specific use.

Shop Network Cable Testers

FAQs

Can You Get Outdoor Cat6 Cable (Waterproof)?

Cat 6 cable can be used outdoors as long as you purchase a waterproof variety. This comes with an additional outer sheath in order to waterproof it. As a result, this makes the cable a bit wider and stiffer, which in turn makes it stronger too. It does however mean that the minimum bend radius is reduced due to the increased thickness, so this needs to be taken into consideration.

What is the Difference Between a Cat6 Patch Lead and a Crossover Cable?

A Cat6 patch lead or cable, also known as a straight-through cable, is used for connecting devices of different types, like a computer to a switch or hub.

Ethernet crossover cable on the other hand is used for connecting two types of the same device together e.g. two computers.

When Do I Need Cat6 Plenum Cable?

Plenum cable is used in spaces generally reserved for HVAC areas, usually under raised floors or above suspended ceilings within buildings. It has special insulation giving it smokeless and low flame characteristics.

In general, Cat6 plenum cable costs more as the materials used to create them must meet more stringent criteria. As a result, it is more expensive than standard PVC cable.


Categories:Networking

Good News……Energy Regulator Cuts Power Costs for Large Users by at Least 20%

05/10/2021 10:38
In a fresh bid to reduce the retail prices, The energy watchdog has cut retail electricity prices for large manufacturers in a fresh bid to make power costs competitive compared with other African nations such as Ethiopia, South Africa and Egypt.
The Energy and Petroleum Regulatory Authority (EPRA) has lowered retail tariffs for big consumers to Sh7.99 per kilowatt hour (kWh) from Sh10.10 a unit, reflecting a 20.8 percent fall.
Manufacturers operating in Special Economic Zones close to the Naivasha standard gauge railway (SGR) station will pay Sh5 per kWh, from the current rate of Sh10.10 and Sh12.
Domestic, commercial and small industrialists have been exempted from the discount as Kenya Power continues to push for higher tariffs. The lower electricity prices for industrialists are meant to boost economic growth, entice investors and rev up job creation. The Kenyan government has been trying to boost investment in the power-hungry manufacturing sector in recent years, including the opening of light vehicle assembly plants by global firms like Peugeot and Volkswagen.
Pavel Oimeke, EPRA Director-General, reckons that the discount will apply to larger manufacturers connected to the 220 kilovolt lines, arguing that the power cut will ease their production costs.
“The large industries will enjoy significant relief from this new revision given that they also have the cheaper time of use tariff and the ongoing rebates plan. We have also come up with a special tariff for the Special Economic Zones,” Mr Oimeke said. The lower time of use tariff applies from 10pm to 6am every day to boost usage of electricity when most households and businesses have shut down.
The new prices are effective from January 30 and will apply to postpaid bills due at the end of February. Taxes and other levies account for about a third of electricity tariffs and manufacturers have been lobbying for these charges to be reduced.
During his second term inauguration, President Uhuru Kenyatta said he planned to increase the share of manufacturing to annual economic output to 15 percent from nine percent.
Kenya Power has consistently sought higher tariffs, arguing that it needs them to cover the capital-intensive nature of building and maintaining a nationwide electricity distribution infrastructure. The listed utility firm has made an application to increase electricity prices by up to a fifth in a review that if implemented will hurt household budgets and raise the already high cost of doing business in Kenya.
Kenya Power is seeking higher tariffs to reverse its reducing profitability and review the temporary reduction of power charges that expired in July. It wants to increase the consumption charge for those consuming less than 100 kilowatts per month to Sh12.50 a unit, up from the current Sh10.
This will apply to approximately 5.7 million customers who use below 100 kilowatt units per month. The law provides that electricity tariffs be reviewed every three years, but the timetable has been erratic as the regulator has often delayed or amended the rates, partly due to the government seeking to ease inflationary pressure on households and industries.
Kenya Power has hinged the recovery of its earnings on the new tariffs after issuing a profit warning for the second year in a row.
The firm in 2018 returned the worst performance in a decade as profits fell 63.7 percent to Sh1.92 billion, denying investors dividends.
 

Categories:Blogs, Policy & Advocacy

Yeastar S20 VoIP PBX Asterisk Appliance

05/10/2021 10:29

Affordability without sacrifice. The s20 VoIP PBX delivers an incredible array of business features and advances Yeastar’s popular line of Asterisk based appliances. the s 20 adds features, and advances both the hardware and software, with one of the best intuitive user interfaces.

Review of the Yeastar S20 VoIP PBX

Yeastar keeps getting it right. The S20 VoIP appliance is everything that a small company might want. With the host of features that came with the MyPBX SOHO like Fax to Email, Voicemail to Email, MOH, Queues, Ring Groups, Time Conditions, etc., the S20 also offers some neat new features like AutoClip, more robust call recording, and SIP Forking.

The S20 comes with 2 on-board slots that can be used for expansion modules, including FXS, FXO, or T1/PRI ports, and can now also now accept a GSM module (new with the S-20). The hardware has been upgraded and includes Texas Instruments voice processors, a Freescale ARM A9 industrial grade Quad Core CPU, 4GB Samsung flash memory, and double the RAM to 512 MB DDR3.

The S-Series PBXs also have an improved software component and uses version 13 of Asterisk. Review of the S20 shows how well liked the redesigned clean Web-interface (GUI) is. In the design form of a desktop, much like Windows, most people will feel quite at home with its look, navigation design and ability to get to the settings that you need. For example, OpenVPN can be found on its own tab in Network Settings. Administration becomes that much easier, as one can work with several settings at the same time, each opened in its own folder. Shortcuts can then be placed on the PC desktop for quick access to frequently used configurations.

Yeastar S series VoIP PBX GUI screenshot.

Another big improvement that the S20 offers over the SOHO has to do with the way the recording function of conversations operates. SOHO only would record conversations in an on demand basis with the recording started after the user’s initiation. With the S20 additional functionality has been added so conversations can be setup to record for a certain user or a specific trunk (record all incoming and outgoing calls). This is a huge improvement for companies that need this ability and recordings can be setup to be stored on an external network drive.

It goes without saying that the Yeastar S20 VoIP PBX is one of the best Asterisk based affordable appliances on the market. Yeastar has improved the MyPBX line (although the user capacity of the S20 is less than the MyPBX SOHO) and done so while keeping the appliance, even when adding a FXO or GSM module card, very affordable. And just like its predecessor, you have a choice of SIP based phones that you can use for your deployment, however using Yealink phones, which offer easy configuration and design compatibilities that the two companies have collaborated on, makes this a top choice for any small to medium sized company.

Review for Yeastar S20 VoIP Asterisk Appliance

Young professional rating the Yeastar ip-pbx system.

The S20 VoIP PBX shows Yeastar has doubled down and improved their extremely popular MyPBX SOHO appliance and now offers one of the best affordable small office phone systems anywhere.

Improved upgraded hardware with software improvements have moved the Yeastar s20 as one of the best asterisk IP-PBX appliances on the market for the small office.

Yeastar S20 VoIP PBX Asterisk Appliance
  • The Yeastar S-Series is compatible withphones by Yeastar, Polycom, Grandstream Snom, etc..
  • Easy Installation and Configuration.
  • Multiple Language Support, Great for International Satellite Offices.
  • An excellent clean intuitive Graphic Interface (Metro UI).
  • Supports up to 20 Users, 10 Concurrent Calls and 20 VoIP Trunks (Less than the SOHO.)
  • Add PSTN Connectivity through the Addition of a 2Port FXO Module(s).
  • Additional application solutions (extra license) such as the Hotel App and Queuemetrics.
  • Call recording, SIP Forking, AutoCLIP, Event Center and Visual Status Monitor installed.
  • No License Fees and Free lifetime software/firmware upgrades.
  • Well written documentation and configuration guides with support through online community, knowledgebase, webinars and Yeastar Academy.
  • Enhanced Security with Built-in Firewall.
  • 3 Year Manufacturer’s Warranty
Test drive of the Yeastar S series IP PBX

Categories:Blogs

HOME ENERGY AUDIT

10/28/2020 13:29

The amount spent on energy depends on the type of fuels used (such as electricity, oil, LPG and Wood) as well as the rate at which it sells for in your locality. in most cases, especially in Kenya, the price of these fuels may be outside of one’s control as a property owner, but one thing is certain; the less energy your home consumes, the more the savings on your electricity bill.

One surest way on ensuring that you are as efficient (and, therefore, as conservative) as possible in energy spending is conduct a home energy audit.

What is Home Energy Audit?

A home energy audit means assessing your home, and determining what improvements that can lead to greater energy efficiency.

  • A home energy audit help assess all of your home’s energy uses and outline all of the specifics.
  • The audit helps identify a particular home is losing energy and auditor gives recommendations on how to improve efficiency and save money spent on energy.
  • Your home is among the easiest and most obvious places to start to reduce electricity consumption without affecting your comfort.
  • Home energy audit can be as simple as walking around the home and making a list of changes that look simple and which can be made straight away. Alternatively, a professional energy auditor can be hired to conduct an in-depth analysis.

Professional Energy Auditors use professional grade equipment that is specifically designed to provide accurate measurements. A professional audit provides the most complete picture of your home’s energy use.

However, some homeowners choose to conduct their own energy audit.

How to conduct your own mini home energy audit

While having a professional do your energy audit is the best way to identify the problem areas in your home, there are a few energy savings tips that can help you make energy efficiency improvements on your own. These include:

  1. Switching OFF lights that are not in use especially in corridors, washrooms and bedroom
  2. Switching OFF electronics when no one is using them such as television sets, computers etc.
  3. Load control is critical. For example, if you are boiling water for washing hands, only boil the quantity required instead of filling the kettle while you only need a small portion
  4. Allow food to cool down before putting into the fridge. This helps in reducing the cooling load.
  5. Pre-plan on your warmers/microwaves. You can reduce energy requirement by removing the food/beverage from fridge some time before warming.
  6. When buying new equipment, check on energy star-rating. A more efficient equipment/electronic will help you save more. Examples are LED lights.

What to expect from a home energy audit?

Professional home energy audits can take about 30 minutes to 4 hours, though this is dependent on the size the home. Special tools are used in carrying out measurements to establish the problem(s) and come up with recommendations. The figure below shows loads to expect in a typical home.

Load to expect in a typical home

How much is the cost of an energy audit cost, and, how much can one save?

  • The charges for a home energy audit are dependent on the scope of work. The auditor visits the facility to check the loads that are available, and this informs the type of tools to use and man-hours required to perform the task.
  • It is estimated that a home can save between 5% and 30% of the electricity bills. This implies that though the upfront cost of conducting the audit is high, the resulting recommendations will be worth it.

When to Conduct a Home Energy Audit

The best time to conduct a home energy audit is anytime. The sooner the energy saving measures are determined and implemented, the sooner you start saving money and enjoying the benefits.


Categories:Blogs

Power Distribution Unit in Kenya

07/22/2020 7:50

A power distribution unit (PDU) in Kenya or mains distribution unit (MDU) is a device fitted with multiple outputs designed to distribute electric power, especially to racks of computers and networking equipment located within a data centre. Data centres face challenges in power protection and management solutions. This is why many data centres rely on PDU monitoring to improve efficiency, uptime, and growth.

Rack mount Power Distribution Unit in Kenya

A 10-outlet rack-mount PDU (front  from A2Z Africa Kenya), connected to a UPS (bottom unit on right). PDUs vary from simple and inexpensive rack-mounted power strips to larger floor-mounted PDUs with multiple functions including power filtering to improve power quality, intelligent load balancing, and remote monitoring and control by LAN or SNMP. This kind of PDU placement offers intelligent capabilities such as power metering at the inlet, outlet, and PDU branch circuit level and support for environment sensors.

Cabinet Power Distribution Unit in Kenya

In data centres, larger PDUs are needed to power multiple server cabinets. Each server cabinet or row of cabinets may require multiple high current circuits, possibly from different phases of incoming power or different UPSs. Standalone cabinet PDUs are self-contained units that include main circuit breakers, individual circuit breakers, and power monitoring panels. The cabinet provides internal bus bars for neutral and grounding. Prepunched top and bottom panels allow for safe cable entry.

Portable Power Distribution Unit in Kenya

In homes and offices, power distribution unit may also refer to a power strip or similar device for consumer use. These units are usually portable.

Siemon’s PowerMax line of PDUs range from basic and metered for simple and cost-effective power distribution, to a full line of intelligent PDUs that deliver real time power information with varying degrees of intelligent functionality for valuable troubleshooting, control and monitoring of power usage, capacity and environmental conditions.

Basic PDUs

Basic PDUs offer a lower-cost alternative for every day, reliable power distribution when advanced features are not required, providing a robust yet economical means to distribute power to IT equipment.

Metered PDUs

Metered PDUs provide local visual monitoring capability through a built-in LED meter that displays real-time power data. Metered PDUs are a cost-effective alternative for providing more intelligence than basic PDUs.

Monitored PDU

Monitored PDUs enable remote monitoring at an aggregate, device-level via an Ethernet port, generating a smaller quantity of information to simplify management.

Switched PDUs

Switched Power Distribution Unit in Kenya

Switched PDUs combine total monitoring with outlet-level switching that enables users to remotely control individual receptacles, allowing equipment to be restarted or remotely shut down. Switched PDUs offer the ability to configure outlets into up to six groups and assign user group access to specific outlets groups.

Smart PDUs Power Distribution Unit in Kenya

Smart PDUs offer a higher level of monitoring at the device or outlet-level via an Ethernet port. Smart PDUs offer the ability to configure outlets into up to six groups and assign user group access to specific outlets groups.

Managed PDUs Power Distribution Unit in Kenya

Managed PDUs offer the highest level of control and monitoring with outlet-level monitoring and outlet-level switching that enable users to remotely monitor and control individual receptacles. Managed PDUs offer the ability to configure outlets into up to six groups and assign user group access to specific outlets groups.

  1. power max 4 way surge protected extension cable kenya
  2. PDU 9 ways UK standard sockets with on/off switch
  3. 6 Way Black Cabinet Power Distribution Unit
  4. 6 Way White Cabinet Power Distribution Unit

Categories:Uncategorized

The best website for online shopping in Kenya.

07/11/2020 8:03

Devices Technology Store is one of the best online electronic shops in Nairobi with a very well organized online shop for stress free online shopping in KenyaElectronics shopping in Nairobi can be a daunting task because of the high number of counterfeit electronic products in the online market in Kenya today and this has made most people to be skeptical when shopping in Nairobi for electronic products.

Our online shop features original quality electronic products with nice product descriptions and high quality images with an easy to browse product catalogue. We pride ourselves as the best online electronic shop in Nairobi with cheap prices and the best warranty support program. Occasionally we have seasonal product promotions online to our customers who have signed up to our newsletters. Devices Technology store is certainly setting the trend for the online markets in Kenya today.

Are you searching for the best computer shops in Nairobi?

Devices Technology Store is one of the best computer shops in Nairobi and is strategically located at the heart of Nairobi CBD in Kenya. Our computer shop has also a strong online presence with trusted, reliable and robust ecommerce platform to serve our online customers anywhere in Kenya. We have not been left behind in other digital places and our computer store is present on facebook, twitterinstagram, Jumia, Pigiame, AvechiSky Garden, OLX and in other digital media platforms. Online electronic shops in Kenya are steadily growing fast and our goal is to become your best online computer shop in Nairobi.

Our focus is not just in computer sales but we also focus on customer satisfaction, customer service, providing continuous value addition to all our stakeholders by ensuring that we provide smooth first class services during purchase and after sale services such as software installation, computer repair and maintenance and much more. Moreover, we have highly trained knowledgeable, friendly and professional staff ready to assist you make informed choices and decisions in your shopping.

When shopping for cheap computers in Nairobi or looking for computers for sale in Kenya, Devices Technology store is a one stop computer shop in Kenya with a wide array of handpicked top electronics and computer brands like HP, Lenovo, Samsung, Asus, Apple and Dell and these brands need no introduction when it comes to desktop computers and laptop computers. Besides being computer dealers in Nairobi, we are also dealers in other products such as Printers & Scannersink toners and cartridges, internal hard disks, external hard disks, routers, switches and other network devices.

Express delivery anywhere in Kenya.

Wondering where to find cheap computer shops in Westlands Nairobi or Cheap Computer shops in Mombasa or computer dealers in Nairobi? Worry no more because Devices Technology Store brings to you the convenience of online shopping and now you can buy easily from the comfort of your seat in our online computer shop for different range of  IT products and have them delivered to you anywhere in Kenya.

Our customers in Nairobi can buy directly from our computer store or buy online and get free door-step delivery in Nairobi that includes Westlands, Parklands, Industrial Area, Ngong Road, Pipeline, Upperhill and more other places.

Are we amongst the best computer shops in Nairobi Kenya? Order now from us and we would love hearing from you on the shopping experience with us.


Categories:Green Energy

airMAX – How to Configure a Point-to-Point Link (Layer 2, Transparent Bridge)

07/6/2020 14:57

Overview

This article provides the configuration needed to create a L2 point-to-point link. Find the steps on how to make this configuration for both Ubiquiti AC and M devices below. The settings are very similar with just small modifications that will be pointed out for each configuration. 

Network Diagram

airMAX-How-to-Configure-a-PtP-Link-Network-Diagram.png

Initial Steps

  1. Please begin by restoring the radio to factory defaults. This is critical, especially if you are troubleshooting a problem. If you need more information on how to do so, this video will help. 
  2. With your Windows PC or Mac computer configured to the 192.168.1.x subnet, connect it to the radio using an Ethernet cable.
  3. Using a web browser, enter 192.168.1.20 as the URL to gain access to the radio’s management console.
  4. Enter ubnt as the administration account and ubnt as the password.
  5. This article bases its configuration instructions on the network diagram above, you will only need to change the elements mentioned, everything else should remain with its default values.

Configuration for Radio Labeled 192.168.1.2

  AC DevicesM Devices
1. Choose the |Wireless| tab, and only change: Access Point: On PTP Mode: On 2. Choose the |Network| tab, and only change: IP Address: 192.168.1.2 Click the Save button 3. Reboot or power cycle the modem off and on before using this link for the first time.1. Choose the |Wireless| tab, and only change: Wireless Mode: Access Point WDS: [X] Enable Click the Change button 2. Choose the |Network| tab, and only change: IP Address: 192.168.1.2 Click the Change button Click the Apply button 3. Reboot or power cycle the modem off and on before using this link for the first time.

Configuration for Radio Labeled 192.168.1.3

  AC DevicesM Devices
1. Repeat steps 1 through 4 from the Before you begin section.

2. Choose the |Wireless| tab, and only change: Access Point: Off PTP Mode: On 3. Choose the |Network| tab, and only change: IP Address: 192.168.1.3 Click the Save button 4. Reboot or power cycle the modem off and on before using this link for the first time.
1. Repeat steps 1 through 4 from the Before you begin section.

2. Choose the |Wireless| tab, and only change: Wireless Mode: Station WDS: [X] Enable Click the Change button 3. Choose the |Network| tab, and only change: IP Address: 192.168.1.3 Click the Change button 4. Click Apply. 5. Reboot or power cycle the modem off and on before using this link for the first time.

User Tips

  • Select the correct cable. Use Ubiquiti ToughCable Pro shielded twisted pair data cable between your Power over Ethernet adapter and your radio. If the radio is being co-located in an area with a VHF pager, FM or TV broadcast transmitter, use Ubiquiti ToughCable Carrier cable. See our TOUGHCable Datasheet for more information.
  • Secure the radios. Modify the default administration account name and password now. From the web management console:
    1. Go to System > System Accounts
    2. Administrative Username [change it]
    3. Hover over icon to the right, Change Password and modify it (for M devices, for AC devices simply Change Password).
    4. Click the Change button. Then click the Apply button. (For M devices, for AC devices simply click the Save button)
  • Secure the wireless signal. Encrypt the wireless connection. From the web management console:
  1. Go to Wireless > Wireless Security > Security > WPA2-AES
  2. WPA Preshared Key: enter a strong password
  3. Click the Change button. Then click the Apply button. (For M devices, for AC devices simply click the Save button)

In the diagram above, the block of equipment after the Switch could be replaced with anything desired to bridge, including a SOHO Wi-Fi router, for example. This radio configuration acts like a simple Cat-5 cable.


Categories:Home Energy Efficiency, Networking

How to extend WiFi coverage using an Ubiquiti NanoStation

07/6/2020 14:53

In this guide I will show you how to extend your WiFi range and include a separate building using an Ubiquiti NanoStation.

The problem

With no data-hungry teenagers left in the house, my dad’s 200GB Telstra Cable plan has lately gone unused, himself only using about 10% of the data allowance each month.

His neighbours are a young family who have been making do with a cheap Vodafone 3G USB connection, pulling about 2-3Mbps download on a good day, when “the wind blows in the right direction” as his neighbour often says.

It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to see it made sense to share his solid 30Mbps connection between the two houses.

So after fiddling about with a Netgear router set in WDS mode (a form of wireless bridging) for a few days with constant dropouts and slow connection speed, it was time to set up something more substantial.

Normally extending WiFi with another access point set in WDS mode works reasonably well, but with both houses being double-brick construction, it blocks most of the signal reaching the second access point.

The solution

We decided to install a directional outdoor WiFi access point on the side of my dad’s house facing his neighbour’s house.

When it comes to this type of equipment, there’s only one name you need to know – Ubiquiti.

We chose the Ubiquiti NanoStation because it has a 60 degree transmission angle, an inbuilt 600mW amplifier, and ~15km range – this unit certainly packed the punch required to penetrate the walls.

Of course set to it’s maximum output the unit would have covered half the suburb, so the unit was turned down to a more appropriate strength.

Equipment required

To complete this type of installation you will need:

  • NanoStation M2 or M2 LOCO
  • 2 sets of Ethernet cable
  • Mounting pole or bracket
  • Basic tools (drill, pliers, etc)
sharing internet with ubiquiti nanostation what equipment do i need

If you’re not familiar with Power-over-Ethernet (PoE), it’s a brilliant technology that allows sending low voltage (24V) over standard Ethernet cable to power devices like our NanoStation.

The Australian 240V plug and PoE injector are supplied as part of the Ubiquiti NanoStation kit.

The PoE injector takes our standard Ethernet connection from the modem/router plugged into the LAN port as its input, adds 24V/1A DC, and pumps it into the outgoing PoE port where we will be plugging a length of standard Ethernet cable in to connect the NanoStation.

how to set up power over ethernet for nanostation ubiquiti M2

In order to isolate the NanoStation’s WiFi from the cable modem’s own WiFi signal (to limit interference), the best spot for the installation was outside the house. Ideally it would have been best to place it on the outside of the brick wall, but we opted for the easier choice and mounted it on a wooden board.

Most of the area to be covered was only 50-70m away from this position.

area to be covered by ubiquiti nanostation

As the NanoStation is designed for pole mounting, it’s integrated bracket is curved and has a slot for securing with the supplied zip ties.

While we thought about dropping down the hardware store to grab a short length of polypipe and some brackets, a bit of treated timber that was lying around did the job just fine.

As the antenna had to be faced in the direction of the neighbours house, the NanoStation was mounted at a slight angle.

bracket mounting a nanostation to wall outside

Once mounted correctly, the 10m Ethernet cable was secured in place using cable clips and routed back inside the house to the cable modem, and plugged in to the PoE port on the Power-over-Ethernet injector.

cat5e and cat6 both suitable for ubiquiti NSM2

Configuring your NanoStation

Now that the hardware has been completely installed, it’s time to configure the NanoStation to act as a WiFi Access Point.

While the device can be configured over the network, it’s often easier to perform configuration when the LAN cable is plugged directly into the Ethernet jack on your computer.

Configuration is performed using your web browser by typing in https://192.168.1.20.

You’ll get a warning pop up stating that the device has presented an invalid SSL certificate due to the certificate being self-signed and not issued by a CA. This is normal, so just hit accept/continue.

You’ll then need to log in with the default username and password of “ubnt”.

Configure the Wireless tab

The first step is to configure the wireless tab so the NanoStation acts as a WiFi Access Point.

Change the settings according to the below picture. Be sure to set the device up with WPA2 security and an appropriate WiFi password here.

You can also use this tab to adjust the power output should you wish to cover a smaller area.

The default channel bandwidth is 40MHz, but some older devices such as wireless printers and mobile phones cannot operate on 40MHz, so we’ve changed it to 20MHz in this setup.

configuring nanostation via airos 5.5 as wireless access point

Turn off airMAX

Navigate to the left-most tab (with the Ubiquiti logo) and uncheck the airMAX checkbox to disable Ubiquiti’s proprietary airMAX protocol (a special MIMO TDMA multiplexing technique that allows communication between two or more Ubiquiti devices).

You won’t be able to untick the box until the wireless tab has been completely configured.

disable airmax protocol airos 5.5

Configure Network Settings

Finally it’s time to configure the network settings to reflect that of your existing network and modem.

In our case the Telstra Cable modem is located at 192.168.0.1 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, meaning all our devices are restricted to the 192.168.0.XXX subnet.

This means that we’ve had to change the default 192.168.1.20 to 192.168.0.20.

As we want the cable modem to continue controlling the network, we’re setting the NanoStation to Bridge mode, and then assigning the Default Gateway and DNS IP addresses to the address of the modem (192.168.0.1).

The secondary DNS server is set to 8.8.8.8 (Google’s DNS server), but this isn’t important. Of course these are our network settings, your settings will undoubtedly be different, so make sure you configure them accordingly.

The Results

On the normal home WiFi network (BigPond3035) sitting 1 metre from the cable modem, speeds typically range between 30-35Mbps and latency between 20-40ms.

Next door in the neighbours house, speeds ranged from 20-30Mbps, with best speeds in the middle of the house away from the brick walls.

Given the short distance, we didn’t need to fine tune any settings or adjust the angle of the NanoStation, if anything the system was still a bit too powerful despite halving the output power.

remote access point with ubiquiti nanostation speed test

Summary

All Ubiquiti equipment is incredibly versatile, their M2 (2.4GHz) models are most popular for installations requiring long range bridging, extending WiFi coverage, AP-Repeater scenarios requiring the use of 802.11b/g/n, and much more.

Their M5 (5.8GHz) models are preferred for short and long range bridging (P2P, P2MP, hybrid) as there’s less interference on the 5.8GHz band, and can also network with UE operating on 802.11a/n.

For this type of short range installation I’d suggest using the NanoStation LOCO, I simply chose the standard NanoStation and turned the power down to keep the WiFi footprint as small as possible, while still penetrating through the double-brick.

Consequently I could remain connected to the WiFi several hundred metres down the street (as far as I could bother walking), but with WPA2 encryption (and internal security that would make a CISSP proud) – I’m not worried about wardriving.

That’s it – over to you!

Equipment used


Categories:Uncategorized